Undergraduate Degree

  • University of Denver , 1973 , Denver , CO

Medical School

  • University of Colorado School of Medicine , 1977 , Denver , CO


  • University of Minnesota , 1978 , Minneapolis , MN


  • University of Minnesota , 1979 , Minneapolis , MN


  • University of Minnesota , 1983 , Minneapolis , MN

Philosophy of Care

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a complex disease, with many causes and outcomes, and patients with PH have many different needs and goals. It is therefore important to work very closely with each patient and their family to tailor therapy to meet their needs, and not merely apply a medical formula for their care. It is also important to work within a system with many layers of expertise. I’m especially pleased to be working at Boston Children’s because this hospital provides the many personnel and services required to meet the needs of my patients.


I have had two major professional interests, pediatric cardiac intensive care and the pulmonary circulation, especially pulmonary hypertension. Being a member of the first cohort of pediatric cardiologists who took a special interest in critical care as it applies to pediatric patients with cardiac disease, I have been an active worker in the development of the field, and had deep involvement in a variety of domains. I look forward to continuing to provide clinical care in the CICU, and to helping to train pediatric cardiologists and others interested the critically ill cardiac patient.

My second major clinical and academic focus is the pulmonary circulation, especially pathological pulmonary vasoconstriction and remodeling. Earlier in my career, this interest took expression primarily in laboratory investigation of the pharmacology of the pulmonary vascular bed, and how mechanical forces impact pulmonary vascular smooth muscle growth and matrix protein expression. I left laboratory investigations as I moved my focus into the clinical arena. I have participated in the design and execution of a prospective, industry-sponsored clinical trial of sildenafil for pediatric pulmonary hypertension, and treated many patients for this affliction using conventional therapy.


  • American Board of Pediatrics, General Pediatrics
  • American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatric Cardiology